Thermo-electric Modules

Technical information

Primary Causes of TEM Malfunction

During Assembly

At customer assembly

  • Excessive force was unevenly applied to TEM during assembly.
  • Fastening torque was too high, exceeding the maximum recommended pressure of 15kgf/cm2.

In action

  • Excessive vibrations were transmitted to the TEM elements, e.g., from motor vibrations.
  • High external forces due to thermal distortion of an assembly component (e.g., from the heat sink or cold plate)

Shock / Impact

Dropping of a TEM or excessive contact forces with other assembly components.


Inadequate heat removal on the hot side of the TEM due to high thermal resistance at the heat sink.

Internal Corrosion

Generation of internal condensation (in an unprotected module) during cooling below the dewpoint resulting in internal corrosion of the TEM elements


Cycling Induced Damage